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## Chapter 35

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**Chapter 35**The Nature of Light and the Laws of Geometric Optics**Introduction to Light**• Light is basic to almost all life on Earth. • Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. • Light represents energy transfer from the source to the observer. • Many phenomena depend on the properties of light. • Seeing a TV or computer monitor • Blue sky, colors at sunset and sunrise • Images in mirrors • Eyeglasses and contacts • Rainbows • Many others Section Introduction**Light and Optics**• There are two historical models for the nature of light. • The speed of light has been measured in many ways. • Reflection and refraction are the fundamental phenomena in ray (geometric) optics. • Internal reflection is the basis for fiber optics. Introduction**The Nature of Light**• Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be a stream of particles. • The particles were either emitted by the object being viewed or emanated from the eyes of the viewer. • Newton was the chief architect of the particle theory of light. • He believed the particles left the object and stimulated the sense of sight upon entering the eyes. Section 35.1**Nature of Light – Alternative View**• Christian Huygens argued that light might be some sort of a wave motion. • Thomas Young (in 1801) provided the first clear demonstration of the wave nature of light. • He showed that light rays interfere with each other. • Such behavior could not be explained by particles. Section 35.1**Christian Huygens**• 1629 – 1695 • Best known for contributions to fields of optics and dynamics • He thought light was a type of vibratory motion. • It spread out and produced the sensation of light when it hit the eye. • He deduced the laws of reflection and refraction. • He explained double refraction. Section 35.1**Confirmation of Wave Nature**• During the nineteenth century, other developments led to the general acceptance of the wave theory of light. • Thomas Young provided evidence that light rays interfere with one another according to the principle of superposition. • This behavior could not be explained by a particle theory. • Maxwell asserted that light was a form of high-frequency electromagnetic wave. • Hertz confirmed Maxwell’s predictions. Section 35.1**Particle Nature**• Some experiments could not be explained by the wave model of light. • The photoelectric effect was a major phenomenon not explained by waves. • When light strikes a metal surface, electrons are sometimes ejected from the surface. • The kinetic energy of the ejected electron is independent of the frequency of the light. • Einstein (in 1905) proposed an explanation of the photoelectric effect that used the idea of quantization. • The quantization model assumes that the energy of a light wave is present in particles called photons. • E = hƒ • h is Planck’s Constant and = 6.63 x 10-34 J.s Section 35.1**Dual Nature of Light**• In view of these developments, light must be regarded as having a dual nature. • Light exhibits the characteristics of a wave in some situations and the characteristics of a particle in other situations. • This chapter investigates the wave nature of light. Section 35.1**Measurements of the Speed of Light**• Since light travels at a very high speed, early attempts to measure its speed were unsuccessful. • Remember c = 3.00 x 108 m/s • Galileo tried by using two observers separated by about 10 km. • The reaction time of the observers was more than the transit time of the light. Section 35.2**Measurement of the Speed of Light – Roemer’s Method**• In 1675 Ole Roemer used astronomical observations to estimate the speed of light. • He used the period of revolution of Io, a moon of Jupiter, as Jupiter revolved around the sun. • The angle through which Jupiter moves during a 90° movement of the Earth was calculated. Section 35.2**Roemer’s Method, cont.**• The periods of revolution were longer when the Earth was receding from Jupiter. • Shorter when the Earth was approaching • Using Roemer’s data, Huygens estimated the lower limit of the speed of light to be 2.3 x 108 m/s. • This was important because it demonstrated that light has a finite speed as well as giving an estimate of that speed. Section 35.2**Measurements of the Speed of Light – Fizeau’s Method**• This was the first successful method for measuring the speed of light by means of a purely terrestrial technique. • It was developed in 1849 by Armand Fizeau. • He used a rotating toothed wheel. • The distance between the wheel (considered to be the source) and a mirror was known. Section 35.2**Fizeau’s Method, cont.**• d is the distance between the wheel and the mirror. • Δt is the time for one round trip. • Then c = 2d / Δt • Fizeau found a value of c = 3.1 x 108 m/s. Section 35.2**The Ray Approximation in Ray Optics**• Ray optics (sometimes called geometric optics) involves the study of the propagation of light. • It uses the assumption that light travels in a straight-line path in a uniform medium and changes its direction when it meets the surface of a different medium or if the optical properties of the medium are nonuniform. • The ray approximation is used to represent beams of light. Section 35.3**Ray Approximation**• The rays are straight lines perpendicular to the wave fronts. • With the ray approximation, we assume that a wave moving through a medium travels in a straight line in the direction of its rays. Section 35.3**Ray Approximation, cont.**• If a wave meets a barrier, with λ<<d, the wave emerging from the opening continues to move in a straight line. • d is the diameter of the opening. • There may be some small edge effects. • This approximation is good for the study of mirrors, lenses, prisms, etc. • Other effects occur for openings of other sizes. • See fig. 35.4 b and c Section 35.3**Reflection of Light**• A ray of light, the incident ray, travels in a medium. • When it encounters a boundary with a second medium, part of the incident ray is reflected back into the first medium. • This means it is directed backward into the first medium. • For light waves traveling in three-dimensional space, the reflected light can be in directions different from the direction of the incident rays. Section 35.4**Specular Reflection**• Specular reflection is reflection from a smooth surface. • The reflected rays are parallel to each other. • All reflection in this text is assumed to be specular. Section 35.4**Diffuse Reflection**• Diffuse reflection is reflection from a rough surface. • The reflected rays travel in a variety of directions. • A surface behaves as a smooth surface as long as the surface variations are much smaller than the wavelength of the light. Section 35.4**Law of Reflection**• The normal is a line perpendicular to the surface. • It is at the point where the incident ray strikes the surface. • The incident ray makes an angle of θ1 with the normal. • The reflected ray makes an angle of θ1’with the normal. Section 35.4**Law of Reflection, cont.**• The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. • θ1’= θ1 • This relationship is called the Law of Reflection. • The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal are all in the same plane. • Because this situation happens often, an analysis model, wave under reflection, is identified. • Notation note: • The subscript 1 refers to parameters for the light in the first medium. • If light travels in another medium, the subscript 2 will be associated with the new medium. • Since reflection of waves is a common phenomena, we identify an analysis model for this situation, the wave under reflection analysis model. Section 35.4**Multiple Reflections**• The incident ray strikes the first mirror. • The reflected ray is directed toward the second mirror. • There is a second reflection from the second mirror. • Apply the Law of Reflection and some geometry to determine information about the rays. Section 35.4**Retroreflection**• Assume the angle between two mirrors is 90o . • The reflected beam returns to the source parallel to its original path. • This phenomenon is called retroreflection. • Applications include: • Measuring the distance to the Moon • Automobile taillights • Traffic signs Section 35.4**Refraction of Light**• When a ray of light traveling through a transparent medium encounters a boundary leading into another transparent medium, part of the energy is reflected and part enters the second medium. • The ray that enters the second medium changes its direction of propagation at the boundary. • This bending of the ray is called refraction. Section 35.5**Refraction, cont.**• The incident ray, the reflected ray, the refracted ray, and the normal all lie on the same plane. • The angle of refraction depends upon the material and the angle of incidence. • v1 is the speed of the light in the first medium and v2 is its speed in the second. Section 35.5**Refraction of Light, final**• The path of the light through the refracting surface is reversible. • For example, a ray travels from A to B. • If the ray originated at B, it would follow the line AB to reach point A. Section 35.5**Following the Reflected and Refracted Rays**• Ray is the incident ray. • Ray is the reflected ray. • Ray is refracted into the lucite. • Ray is internally reflected in the lucite. • Ray is refracted as it enters the air from the lucite. Section 35.5**Refraction Details, 1**• Light may refract into a material where its speed is lower. • The angle of refraction is less than the angle of incidence. • The ray bends toward the normal. Section 35.5**Refraction Details, 2**• Light may refract into a material where its speed is higher. • The angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence. • The ray bends away from the normal. Section 35.5**Light in a Medium**• The light enters from the left. • The light may encounter an electron. • The electron may absorb the light, oscillate, and reradiate the light. • The absorption and radiation cause the average speed of the light moving through the material to decrease. Section 35.5**The Index of Refraction**• The speed of light in any material is less than its speed in vacuum. • The index of refraction, n, of a medium can be defined as Section 35.5**Index of Refraction, cont.**• For a vacuum, n = 1 • We assume n = 1 for air also • For other media, n > 1 • n is a dimensionless number greater than unity. • n is not necessarily an integer. Section 35.5**Some Indices of Refraction**Section 35.5**Frequency Between Media**• As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency does not change. • Both the wave speed and the wavelength do change. • The wavefronts do not pile up, nor are they created or destroyed at the boundary, so ƒ must stay the same. Section 35.5**Index of Refraction Extended**• The frequency stays the same as the wave travels from one medium to the other. • v = ƒλ • ƒ1 = ƒ2 but v1 v2 so λ1λ2 • The ratio of the indices of refraction of the two media can be expressed as various ratios. • The index of refraction is inversely proportional to the wave speed. • As the wave speed decreases, the index of refraction increases. • The higher the index of refraction, the more it slows downs the light wave speed. Section 35.5**More About Index of Refraction**• The previous relationship can be simplified to compare wavelengths and indices: λ1n1 = λ2n2 • In air, n1 = 1 and the index of refraction of the material can be defined in terms of the wavelengths. Section 35.5**Snell’s Law of Refraction**• n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 • θ1 is the angle of incidence • θ2 is the angle of refraction • The experimental discovery of this relationship is usually credited to Willebrord Snell and is therefore known as Snell’s law of refraction. • Refraction is a commonplace occurrence, so identify an analysis model as a wave under refraction. Section 35.5**Prism**• A ray of single-wavelength light incident on the prism will emerge at angle d from its original direction of travel. • d is called the angle of deviation. • F is the apex angle. Section 35.5**Huygens’s Principle**• Huygens assumed that light is a form of wave motion rather than a stream of particles. • Huygens’s Principle is a geometric construction for determining the position of a new wave at some point based on the knowledge of the wave front that preceded it. • All points on a given wave front are taken as point sources for the production of spherical secondary waves, called wavelets, which propagate outward through a medium with speeds characteristic of waves in that medium. • After some time has passed, the new position of the wave front is the surface tangent to the wavelets. Section 35.6**Huygens’s Construction for a Plane Wave**• At t = 0, the wave front is indicated by the plane AA.’ • The points are representative sources for the wavelets. • After the wavelets have moved a distance cΔt, a new plane BB’ can be drawn tangent to the wavefronts. Section 35.6**Huygens’s Construction for a Spherical Wave**• The inner arc represents part of the spherical wave. • The points are representative points where wavelets are propagated. • The new wavefront is tangent at each point to the wavelet. Section 35.6**Huygens’s Principle and the Law of Reflection**• The law of reflection can be derived from Huygens’s principle. • AB is a plane wave front of incident light. • The wave at A sends out a wavelet centered on A toward D. • The wave at B sends out a wavelet centered on B toward C. • AD = BC = c Δt Section 35.6**Huygens’s Principle and the Law of Reflection, cont.**• Triangle ABC is congruent to triangle ADC. • cos g = BC / AC • cos g’ = AD / AC • Therefore, cos g = cos g’ and g = g’ • This gives θ1 = θ1’ • This is the law of reflection. Section 35.6**Huygens’s Principle and the Law of Refraction**• Ray 1 strikes the surface and at a time interval Δt later, ray 2 strikes the surface. • During this time interval, the wave at A sends out a wavelet, centered at A, toward D. Section 35.6**Huygens’s Principle and the Law of Refraction, cont.**• The wave at B sends out a wavelet, centered at B, toward C. • The two wavelets travel in different media, therefore their radii are different. • From triangles ABC and ADC, we find Section 35.6**Huygens’s Principle and the Law of Refraction, final**• The preceding equation can be simplified to • This is Snell’s law of refraction. Section 35.6**Dispersion**• For a given material, the index of refraction varies with the wavelength of the light passing through the material. • This dependence of n on λ is called dispersion. • Snell’s law indicates light of different wavelengths is bent at different angles when incident on a refracting material. Section 35.7**Variation of Index of Refraction with Wavelength**• The index of refraction for a material generally decreases with increasing wavelength. • Violet light bends more than red light when passing into a refracting material. Section 35.7**Refraction in a Prism**• Since all the colors have different angles of deviation, white light will spread out into a spectrum. • Violet deviates the most. • Red deviates the least. • The remaining colors are in between. Section 35.7